Snapshot of the Region

Snapshot of the Region

Silicon Valley Population Clock


As of

Based on California Department of Finance January 2023 population data and estimated using the most recent growth rates available. Estimates for births, deaths and migration are based on July data for San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties only.

What is Silicon Valley?

“Silicon Valley” is a concept – an ecosystem in and around the Santa Clara Valley, a region in southern portion of California’s San Francisco Bay Area. It’s boundaries are nebulous. For the purposes of examining data and trends, however, the geographical boundaries of Silicon Valley must be defined.

In the Silicon Valley Index publication and on, Silicon Valley has been defined as: Santa Clara County (all), San Mateo County (all), and the cities of Fremont, Newark, and Union City (in Alameda County), and Scotts Valley (in Santa Cruz County). Because San Francisco is a vibrant contributor to the tech economy, data for the City/County of San Francisco are included in various charts throughout the Index. Some charts may include subsets of the region due to limited data availability, as noted.

Map of Silicon Valley

Click on charts to view them at full size:

9 Key Indicator Mini Charts

*Represents a Bay Area estimate. County-level gender data were not readily available.

*Includes None, Atheist, Agnostic, Don’t Know, Refused to Answer, Other, and Other Non-Christian.

Note: Area, Population, Jobs, Average Annual Earnings, and Population Density figures are based on the city-defined Silicon Valley region; Population Change, Population by Age, Race & Ethnicity, Place of Birth, Educational Attainment, and Homeownership figures are based on Santa Clara and San Mateo County data only. Religion data are based on greater Silicon Valley region area codes. Gender data are for the San Francisco-Oakland-Berkeley Metro Area. Oceania includes American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wallis, and Futuna. Multiple & Other includes American Indian and Alaska Native alone, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, Some Other Race alone, and Two or More Races. White Alone, Black or African American Alone, and Multiple & Other are not Hispanic or Latino.

Land Area Infographic

*SSilicon Valley share of California GDP, births, net foreign immigrants, college-educated adults, CalFresh enrollees, millionaire households, and hours of traffic delays include San Mateo and Santa Clara counties only.

Note: The individual share of California M&A deals involving at least one Silicon Valley company and the share involving at least one San Francisco company are not additive — they do not add up to the share of California deals involving either a Silicon Valley or San Francisco company.

Data Sources: Land Area (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010); Population & Births (California Department of Finance, E-4 and E-2 Estimates, 2023); GDP (Moody’s, 2023); Venture Capital is by total dollar amount (CB Insights, 2023); Patent Registrations (U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 2023 estimate based on data through December 4); Initial Public Offerings (Renaissance Capital, 2023); Jobs (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages; JobsEQ, Q2 2023); Mergers & Acquisitions by total number of deals (Factset Research Systems, 2023); Unicorns and Decacorns include private companies with valuations of $1 billion+ and $10 billion+, respectively (CB Insights, 2023); Startups by number of newly-funded startup companies (CB Insights, 2023); Hotel Development is the share of hotel rooms completed (Atlas Hospitality Group, 2022-2023; CalFresh enrollees is the average number of CalFresh Persons (California Department of Social Services, 2023); College-Educated Adults include those ages 25+ with an associate’s, bachelor’s, master’s, and/or doctorate degree (U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, 2022); Hours of Traffic Delays includes state highways (Caltrans PeMS, 2023).

Trend Spotlights Infographic
Restaurant Spending:

Data Source: Earnest Analytics

Airport Traffic:

Note: Foot traffic includes employees and other visitors within the boundaries of the region’s two international airports.

Data Sources: Unacast; San José International Airport; San Francisco International Airport

Institute Video Series (2017) on Silicon Valley Trends

The Institute piloted an Indicators video series in mid-2017, engaging the local community with weekly texts to their mobile devices. The videos included a variety of facts about Silicon Valley’s economic and community health trends, and featured local experts from Joint Venture’s network of regional leaders.

Learn more and watch videos